Dakota, a First Principles-based Battery Simulation and Modeling System

Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC), in collaboration with its research partners, has been developing a state-of-the-art, object-oriented, first-principles-based simulation system, called Dakota, that can reproduce the actual behavior and performance of Li-Ion cells and batteries under a variety of operating conditions. As a desktop modeling and simulation system, Dakota is designed to describe and predict performance under various operational modes and environments. The Dakota tool is not based on empirical cell test data nor particular cell chemistries, but instead incorporates and extends simple Single Particle Model (SPM) equations and includes user defined cell and battery design parameters that enables one to simulate complex charge and discharge profiles. Dakota is an engineer-friendly, extensible and platform-independent tool. The modeling tool has been successfully validated against results described in the literature, detailed Fortran SPM and full-physics model code results, and experimental cycling test data.

Our strategy for the initial development of Dakota has been to incorporate, and extend state-of-the-art first-principles Li-Ion chemistry and physics equations and to validate their operation using available long-duration Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycle life test data. When Dakota correctly simulates the existing cycle life test data, we have successfully validated the first-principle models incorporated into Dakota. Where there are differences, we have worked to improve the firstprinciples chemistry and physics until it correctly simulates the test data. The implication of this strategy is that the Dakota tool can be applicable to any Li-Ion cell chemistry and many different applications including electric vehicle (EV) batteries.

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